A leading country for "outcross" in international breeding.

(article written 1990, by John Aiscan)

The outcross is a very important factor in successful breeding. Breeders which place emphasis on "Outcross" are the ones who finally achieve the best results. The most successful breeder whom I ever met was the late Federico Tesio, who is considered the dean of international breeders. He put great emphasis on the outcross. The best horses bred by Federico Tesio with outcross pedigrees include the undefeated Ribot, Tenerani (sire of Ribot), Niccolo dell'Arca, Daumier, Trevisana, Torbido, Tommaso Guidi, Bellini (grandsire of Ribot), Beatrice Adams, Barbara Sirani, Jacopa dell Sellaio.

The late François Dupré was one of the most successful breeders in France. He was also "outcross" minded. He bred such excellent racehorses as Tantième, Bella Paola, Tanerko, Relko, Match, Reliance, Pola Bella, and Texana. Outcross increases vigor. To carry on a line, vigor must be present. Northern Dancer cannot go forever. Where will breeding go if everybody has too much Northern Dancer blood? High concentration of the same blood leads to degeneration of the breed, unsoundness and a soft constitution.

Several times I have expressed in my books and articles that third and fourth rate performing stallions by Northern Dancer will do a great damage to International breeding.

It's easier to find an outcross in Brazil than in other South American countries. The quality of stallions standing in Brazil is far better than in other South American countries. My criticism of the poor quality of imported stallions, calling them "carne para cachorros" which is Portuguese for "dogmeat", prompted the ex-Minister of Agriculture Dr. Luiz Fernando Cirne Lima and José Bonifácio Coutinho Nogueira (now President of Jockey Club de São Paulo) to introduce new laws controlling the importation of stallions. Stallions imported to Brazil are now required to be graded stakes winners.

In my view pedigree without performance is nothing. Pedigree is a guide to what an individual might transmit if he has done well on the racecourse. Of recent Brazilian importations, mention should be made of Youth (French Derby, Washington D.C. International, etc.), Cut Above (English St. Leger), Mansfield (outstanding Italian performer), Henry le Balafré (Prix Royal Oak [G1], Prêmio Roma [G1] etc.), Babor (outstanding Argentine performer), sound stayer Shangamuzo, Elgay (Italian Derby [G1]) and sound stayer Pardallo. The quality of stallions imported to Brazil from U.S.A. is much better than in other South American countries. From U.S.A., Brazilian breeders imported Youth (French derby [G1], Washington D.C. International [G1], etc.), Executioner ($541,593), Effervescing (Man O'War Stakes [G1]), Sharannpour ($481,500, including Bowling Green Handicap [G1]), Balzac (Norfolk Stakes [G1], Oak Tree Invitational Handicap [G1]), Giboulee ($358,578, Coronation Futurity, etc.) Western ($524,385), Mo Bay (19 wins, $303,437), Hang Ten (Remsen Stakes), Keep The Promise ($143,296).


Brazilian Breeding

Brazilian breeding is a melting pot of international thoroughbreds. Brazil is not saturated with Nearco blood. In Brazil one can find better Argentine-bred stallions than in Argentina itself, and they have done very well there with Vacilante, Janus II, Kublai Khan, Braseante, Maniatao (very good sire of Sprinters and Milers), Telescopio (sire of Garden of Love, victress in the Grande Prêmio Barão de Piracicaba [G1], Grande Prêmio José Guathemozin Nogueira [G1], etc.). One advantage Brazil has is thoroughbreds in this country have not yet been ruined by "cheap imported" stallions, Brazilian horses have been underestimated.

Brazilian breeding has a firm foundation which was laid by outstanding imports like: Coaraze (French Derby, etc.) by Tourbillon; Sandjar, (French derby) by Goya, Fort Napoléon (one of the best of Tantième's generation) by Tourbillon, Elpenor (Ascot Gold Cup and Prix du Cadran) by Owen Tudor, Téléférique (sire of Alizier and Cobalt), Sayani (an exelent miler) by Fair Copy, Mât de Cocagne (Prix Lupin, Grand Prix de Saint Cloud) by Birikil, Violoncelle (Grand Prix de Saint Cloud) by Cranach, Macip (Prix Royal Oak and Ascot Gold Cup) by Marsyas, Orsenigo (outstanding Italian performer) by Oleander; Marveil (King George VI Stakes) by Djebel, Antelami (Derby Italiano) by Botticelli, Tang (Prix Jean Prat, etc.) by Vieux Manoir, Mogul (Grosser Preis von Nordrhein - Westfalen) by Ticino; Wilderer (German Derby) by Neckar, Pharsale by Pharis, Jour et Nuit III (outstanding French miler) by Taboun, Antonym, Felicio (Grand Prix de Saint Cloud) by Shantung; Swallow Tail and Royal Forest.

The key horse of Marcel Boussac's breeding was Tourbillon, who exerted a great influence upon international breeding. Today the Tourbillon line is almost extinct in France. Brazil is now the world's leading source of Tourbillon blood.

Brazil imported the outstanding son of Tourbillon out of Corrida (the only mare two times winner of the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe), Coaraze, who did very well there. Coaraze's outstanding sons like: Emerson, winner of three Derbies (Grande Prêmio Derby Sul-Americano, Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul - Derby Brasileiro, Grande Prêmio Derby Paulista), unbeaten in five starts, exported to France, where he was leading sire in 1972 and produced lot of classic winners, both, as sire and broodmare sire, the very sound Viziane (Grande Prêmio Brasil, Grande Prêmio São Paulo), Rhone (Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul - Brazilian Derby) and Coaralde (Grande Prêmio Ipiranga) could provide an outcross for international breeding, particularly through their daughters. Viziane has confirmed himself as the leading broodmare sire in Brazil.

Tourbillon's high class son, Fort Napoléon (Prix d'Ispahan, Prix Jaques le Marois) lived to be 31 and left a great influence on Brazilian breeding. His better class sons and grandsons and granddaughters could provide an outcross for international breeding. Fort Napoléon's son Tibetano (Grande Prêmio São Paulo [G1]) is doing well and he is sire of Laurus (winner of the Grande Prêmio Jockey Club Brasileiro [G1], Grande Prêmio Francisco Eduardo de Paula Machado [G1], 2nd Grande Prêmio Brazil [G1]).

Goya's branch of the line Tourbillon line is extinct in France, but it is still strong in Brazil. The best sire of this particular branch is Eylau (by Ogan, by Sandjar, by Goya), who won the Derby Paulista and Grande Prêmio Estado da Guanabara. He is a vigorous type of equine athlete who could win well over distances from 1600 to 3000 meters. Eylau himself and his better class sons like; the international miler Laughing Boy (Grande Prêmio Presidente da Republica [G1], Novis (Grande Prêmio Consagração [G1], Grande Prêmio Jockey Club Brasileiro [G1], etc.) Primo Rico (Grande Prêmio Frederico Lundgren [G2], etc.) Gaillardet (Grande Prêmio Piratininga, etc.) could do something for the international outcross.

Clouet (by Ogan) is another good sire of the Goya branch in Brazil and his well-known offspring include: Jet Girl (Grande Prêmio Diana [G1]), Kijockey and Kiformosa.

Tourbillon's greatgrandson Practicante (by Pronto, by Timor) was the leader of 1966 generation in Argentina. In his native country he triumphed in the Gran Prêmio Nacional, Gran Prêmio Carlos Pelegrini and Gran Prêmio de Jockey Club, in U.S.A. he won the San Juan Capistrano and San Obispo Stakes. Practicante became a very successful sire in Argentina and headed the sire list 1978, 1981 and 1982. He has been the leading broodmare sire 1986 to 1989 inclusive. None of Practicantes best sons are at stud in Argentina. Brazil is very fortunate to have outstanding sons of Practicante at stud: Vacilante, Braseante, Especulante and Hidalgante.

Vacilante himself was a high class racehorse and secured the Gran Premio Internacional Dardo Rocha [G1], Gran Premio Internacional Direccion Provincial de Hipodromos [G1] and Gran Premio Internacional Jose Pedro Ramirez [G1] (in Uruguay). Today, Vacilante is the most successful son of the Tourbillon line in Brazil. In 1989 he was the leading Brazilian sire. From his [G1] winners I have to mention, Troyanos (Derby Paulista, Grande Prêmio Brasil, Grande Prêmio de São Paulo), Rasharkin, Benedetta and Paris Queen. Practicante's other good sons in Brazil are: Hidalgante (Gran Premio Internacional Republica Argentina [G1]), Braseante (Gran Premio Internacional Jose Pedro Ramirez [G1]) and Clásico Vicente L. Casares [G2], good sire in Paraná) and Especulante (Clasico Eduardo Casey [G2], second in the Gran Premio Nacional [G1] and Gran Premio Internacional Carlos Pellegrini [G1]) and a promising young sire. Progeny by Vacilante, Braseante, Hidalgante and Especulante are excellent source of outcross.

Wild Risk's blood has always been an excellent source for outcross in international breeding. Sons of Wild Risk like Le Fabuleux and Vimy (maternal grandsire of sucessful sires Busted and High Top) have been exeptionally good broodmare sires. Waldmeister (stayer with finishing speed), one of the best sons of Wild Risk in Brazil, did very well for Haras Mondesir and Haras Santa Ana do Rio Grande. He is doing extremely well as a broodmare sire.

Waldmeister's son Sunset, whom I saw winning the Grande Prêmio Brasil [G1], is also doing well as a sire, his best runners include Ego Trip, who captured the Grande Prêmio Linneo de Paula Machado [G1]. Waldmeister's son, Apollon (Grande Prêmio Estado do Rio de Janeiro [G1] was an excellent miler and he also doing well as a sire. Waldmeister's son, Carteziano, whose victory in the Grande Prêmio Brasil [G1] I witnessed myself, is his sire's successor at the Haras Santa Ana do Rio Grande. In Europe, Wild Risk's blood is fading. Good soons of Waldmeister could save the Wild Risk's branch from extinction, particularly in France. Wild Risk's grandson, Karabas (by Worden, had international class, his eleven victories including the Washington D.C. International, Hardwicke Stakes and Prix du Conseil Municipal. He sired in Brazil the excellent miler Heracleon, twice winner of the Grande Prêmio Presidente da Republica [G1]. Karabas has a genetic make up to follow other sires of the Wild Risk's Branch to become an international broodmare sire.

Chilean-bred, great grandson of Wild Risk, Rasputin II (by Schleswig, by Le Fabuleux) had international racing class. He captured the Grande Prêmio Internacional São Paulo [G1] and his stud performance is good. His better Group winners include Classista [G1] and Depositante. Rasputin II has the genetic make-up to play an important role as a broodmare sire.

Sicambre's grandson, Felicio (by Shantung), winner of the Grand Prix de Saint Cloud, was the leading sire of the Prince Bio branch of the Prince Rose line in Brazil. He established his own successful branch. His descendants without Nearco blood could provide an excellent outcross for international breeding. Felicio's undefeated son, Itajara (winner of the Brazilian Triple Crown) is one of the best horses bred in Brazil and could be a great hope to revitalize the fading Prince Bio-branch of the Prince Rose line. Like his sire Shantung and grandsire Sicambre, Felicio is an excellent broodmare sire and he is the maternal grandsire of the excellent miler, Heracleon. The very sound miler Locris (by Venture VII by Relic), who was free of Nearco blood, did well as a sire in Brazil. He is also outcross factor for international breeding. Locris became a very successful broodmare sire.

Henri Le Balafré (by Sassafras out of Galoubinka by Tamerlane) was a stayer with finishing speed and he triumphed in the Prix Royal Oak [G1] and Prêmio Roma [G1]. Today Henri Le Balafré is the best sire of the Precipitation branch in international breeding. He sires more precocious stock than he himself was. His progeny include very good milers like Quintus Ferus (Grande Prêmio Ipiranga [G1]). Henri Le Balafré's other good progeny of international racing class include: Ás de Pique (Grande Prêmio Internacional São Paulo [G1]), Ken Graf (Grande Prêmio Internacional São Paulo [G1]), Henry Junior (Grande Prêmio Consagração [G1] and (Grande Prêmio Paraná [G1], twice) who entered stud duties in Brazil. Henri Le Balafré's daughter La Greve (Grande Prêmio Diana [G1]) was the leading two-year-old filly of her generation inBrazil. The Precipitation branch is extinct in Europe. Good sons of Henri Le Balafré could revitalize the Precipitation branch in Europe and save it from complete extinction. Precipitation branch sires of the Hurry On line are very good broodmare sires. Henri Le Balafré's daughters are ideal for mating with stallions descending from Northern Dancer.

My favorite sire in international breeding was the Argentine champion sire Sideral (by Seductor, out of Starling II, daughter of Feola), who was thrice leading sire in Argentina. Sideral's blood is fading now in Argentina, Kublai Khan (by Sideral), was an excellent miler in Argentina and did well as sire in Brazil. Kublai Khan's excellent son, Derek (Grande Prêmio Presidente da Republica [G1], Clássico Associação Latino Americana de Jockey Clubs [G1], was an excellent horse between 1600 an 2000 meters. He had excellent finishing speed. From the conformation standpoint he is one of the best stallions in international breeding. He has the genetic and physical make up to establish Sideral blood in Brazil and provide an outcross for intertational breeding.

The best Chilean-bred stallion standing in Brazil is Figurón (by Silver Moon by Seductor, out of Chilean champion mare Figura by Sun Prince), who was one of the best horses of his time in South America. He won the Grande Prêmio International São Paulo (in Brazil) and Polla de Potrillos in Chile. Today, Figurón is one of the leading sires in Brazil. He sires individuals with good legs.

Figurón is joined at stud by his excellent son, Full Love (Taça de Prata [G1] and Grande Prêmio Consagração [G1]. He was an excellent performer between 1600 and 3000 meters, and had an excellent finishing speed. Like his sire Figurón, Full Love has good conformation and is free of Nearco blood. Descendants of Figurón could be excellent outcross factors for international breeding.

Uruguayan-bred Mogambo (by Ujier, by Good Time, by Jerry Honor, by Court Martial), had an international racing class and he won the Grande Prêmio Internacional São Paulo [G1] and is standing at the Haras Santa Ana do Rio Grande. From his Group 1 winners, I have to mention: the very good racemare Belle Valley, Justo Jansen (international class sprinter) and Casmurro. Today Mogambo is one of the leading sires of the Fair Trial's branch, of the Fairway line in international breeding. He is a bigger type of chestnut horse, strongly boned, with straight movements and with strong and perfect hocks.

The undefeated Pharis established his own line. This line is fading in Europe. The most important supporter of the line in Brazil was Zenabre (by Pharas, by Pharis), who despite his bad knees was a high-class racehorse and twice won the Grande Prêmio Internacional Brasil. He was a stayer with finishing speed. He was also the leading sire in Brazil.

Zenabre's claim to fame is Immensity, who captured the Gran Premio Internacional Carlos Pelegrini [G1] in Argentina, Derby Paulista [G1] and Grande Prêmio Diana - São Paulo's Oaks, in Brazil. The following sons of Zenabre are now at stud duties in Brazil: Darial (Grande Prêmio Jockey Club Brasileiro [G1]), Frizli (Grande Prêmio Estado do Rio de Janeiro [G1]), Don Quixote (Grande Prêmio Doutor Frontin [G3], 2nd Grande Prêmio Brasil [G1], and a good sire of stake winners), Company (Grande Prêmio Linneo de Paula Machado [G2]), Artung (Grande Prêmio Bento Gonçalves, etc.), Venabre (Grande Prêmio Jockey Club de São Paulo, etc.), Mauser (Grande Prêmio Oswaldo Aranha [G2], etc.) and Uivador. They are free of Nearco's blood and therefore their daughters are good outcross propositions.

Nermaus (by Pharas out of Fledermaus by Violoncelle) has a real outcross pedigree. He won the Grande Prêmio Linneo de Paula Machado and Grande Prêmio Salgado Filho and was second in the Grande Prêmio Estado da Guanabara. He did well at stud as did his sons Agente (Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul [G1] and Derby Paulista [G1]) and Denee (Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul [G1] - Brazilian Derby).

The leading sire of the Pharis line presently in Brazil is Janus II (by Pardallo by Pardal), who had international racing class and won the (Grande Prêmio Brasil [G1], (Gran Prêmio Jose Pedro Ramirez [G1] and (Gran Premio Municipal [G1]. He is free of Nearco blood and he is doing well as a sire. He is the sire of very good racemares like Cisplatine, Dimane, Deep Blue and Dovane.

Pharis's grandson Negroni (by Flamboyant de Fresnay), has two good sons with outcross pedigrees, Gourmet (Grande Prêmio Internacional Brasil [G1]), and Exótico (Grande Prêmio Doutor Frontin [G1]).

A very good and sound racehorse was Pharis's great-grandson Sabinus (Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul, etc.), he did very well at stud. Sabinus's gray son Old Master (Brazilian Tripple Crown winner) also had an outcross pedigree.

Good Pharis line stallions bred in Brazil could save the Pharis line in Europe from extinction.

The best sire of the Owen Tudor branch of the Hyperion line in Brazil is Baronius (by Falkland, by Right Royal), whose seven victories include Grande Prêmio Estado do Rio de Janeiro [G1] and Taça de Ouro [G1], he was also runner up in the Grande Prêmio Internacional Brasil [G1] and Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul [G1]. His best progeny include the Group 1 winners Jitinga and Hafizabad.

One of the best horses bred in Brazil is Tudor Minstrel's great-grandson, Duplex (by Breeders Dream, by Tudor Melody). He won international events in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Peru. He also has an outcross pedigree. Despite his faulty knees, Duplex was an excellent performer, with a perfect temperament and courage to go along with it.

The best sire of Aureole's branch in Brazil was St. Chad (St. Paddy). He sired the very good racemares Asola, Bretagne, Vistoria and Anilité. St. Chad's best male offspring was Zirkel, who captured the [G1] events Grande Prêmio Jockey Club Brasileiro and Grande Prêmio Bento Gonçalves.

Aurole's son Millenium, who did not have good hocks, did well as a sire. His successors are two high class milers, Palazzi (twice winner of Grande Prêmio Presidente da Republica [G1]) and Kew Gardens (Grande Prêmio Presidente da Republica [G1] and Copa A.N.P.C. [G1]), both with outcross pedigrees and with better hocks than their sire.

The key horse of Volterra's breeding in France was Admiral Drake. However, this male line is now extinct in France.

The best stallion descending from Admiral Drake is Kigrandi (by Leigo, by Mon Cheri, by Admiral Drake), his nine victories include Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul [G1], Grande Prêmio Consagração [G1] and Grande Prêmio Derby Paulista [G1]. He has an excellent physical make-up and an outcross pedigree. His daughters could be an excellent outcross proposition for any international breeder, who wants to breed good winners. A good son of Kigrandi could revive the Admiral Drake male line in France.

The best Brantôme branch sires in Brazil are: Arnaldo (Grande Prêmio Cruzeiro do Sul [G1], etc.) and Isaton (Grande Prêmio Juliano Martins[G1], also an excellent sprinter), both with outcross pedigrees and booth by Tang (by Vieux Manoir).

Mossborough's branch in the Nearco line is almost extinct in Europe. This particular branch is flourishing in South America.

The Best stallion of the Mossborough branch standing in Brazil, is the Argentine-bred Babor (by Dancing Moss), who was an outstanding performer in his native country, where he won from 1600 to 3000 meters and was endowed with finishing speed. He captured [G1] events like the Gran Premio Internacional Carlos Pellegrini, Gran Premio Copa de Ouro, Gran Premio de Honor and Gran Premio Jose Pedro Ramirez. From the conformation standpoint, Babor is a very good example. He did well at stud in Argentina before being sold to Brazil and his best progeny include the very good performers Larabee and Octante.

Also standing in Brazil is the outstanding Argentine sprinter, Montebello (by Mariache, by Dancing Moss), who won ten races including [G1] events Gran Premio F. de Alzaga Unzue, Gran Premio Maipu and Gran Premio Suipacha. Nearco appears in Montebello's pedigree in the fifth generation and therefore he is an outcross. From the conformation standpoint, he is a very good individual.

No other country in the world can provide better outcross material than Brazil. Brazilian breeders are not commercially minded like the most of the breeders in U.S.A. and other South American countries, therefore they are interested in breeding good winners and do not go by fashion.

John Maneteuffel Aiscan, Eng. Agr.

The late John Aiscan, was German by birth and later a naturalized citizen of the U.S.A., known internationally as a pedigree and conformation expert. He is the author of various books and publications, including "ON RIBOT".

In the end of year 2006, long time after John Aiscanís death, the great international Brazilian specialist, Orlando Lima, wrote a very good article about the results and the sequence of Aiscan's comments from 1990. Unfortunately, almost everything about the commercial tendency in the world breeding became true and the stamina of the modern racehorse today is on the point of extinction! The article was written in Portuguese and published in the site "Turfe Brasil".

The article by Orlando Lima is unfortunately no longer in the internet. If you want to know more about John Aiscan, we recommend you to search here (Site in Portuguese): "Raia Leve"

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